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20 May, 2009

Added May 23, 2011: ee endnote [18a].

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UMMARY

Preident Kennedy' body wa placed in an ornamental bronze caket oon after he wa declared dead at Parkland Memorial Hopital, Dalla. Mr. Kennedy accompanied thi caket on the flight to Andrew Air Force Bae in Maryland and then in a navy ambulance for the 18-mile drive to the Betheda Naval Hopital, where the autopy wa performed.

Air Force One touched down at Andrew AFB at approximately 6:00 PM, and the navy ambulance arrived at the Betheda Naval Hopital at approximately 6:55 PM. FBI Agent Jame ibert and Franci O'Neill were in the third vehicle of the cortege. They aited in the removal of the caket from the navy ambulance and it placement in the Betheda morgue anteroom jut prior to 7:17 PM.

An all-ervice honor guard wa on hand at Andrew AFB to formally receive the caket. After placement of the caket in the ambulance, the honor guard traveled to Betheda by helicopter in order to again formally receive the caket and move it from the ambulance into the morgue. Organizer of the honor guard, Lieutenant amuel Bird, in hi ubequent report, tated that the caket wa moved from the ambulance to the morgue at 8:00 PM.

Late in the afternoon of 11/22/63, Marine ergeant Roger Boyajian received order to organize a ten-man ecurity detail and to report to Admiral Calvin Galloway at Betheda Naval Hopital. In an after-action memorandum, gt. Boyajian tated that hi ecurity detail reported to Admiral Galloway at approximately 6:00 PM and formed a ecurity cordon to allow unloading of a caket and it carriage into the morgue at approximately 6:35 PM.

Thu, official report decribe deliverie of Preident Kennedy' body to the Betheda morgue at three ditinct time over a period of approximately an hour and twenty-five minute.

Thee event, elucidated many year ago by David Lifton [1], have been rejected by many a bizarre and too complex to have been carried out uccefully. Here I will provide proof of their occurrence -- uing ource generated and made available by the Aaination Record Review Board -- and dicu their implication.


EYEWITNEE TO DELIVERY OF A CAKET AT 6:35-6:45 pm

  • Roger Boyajian wa a marine ergeant in charge of a detail of marine on the evening of 11/22/63. Hi order from Admiral Calvin Galloway, CO of the National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) at Betheda (of which the Naval Hopital i part), were to prevent unauthorized peronnel from entering retricted area around the morgue [2], a well a to prevent the pre from interfering with the delivery of the preident' caket. On November 26, 1963, Boyajian wrote an after-action memo decribing the dutie of hi team including [3]:
  • At approximately 1835 (6:35 PM) the caket wa received at the morgue entrance and taken inide.

    Although he provided no detail of it appearance, the coffin he aw being unloaded and delivered to the morgue could not have been the ornamental bronze caket in which the preident' body had been placed at Parkland Memorial Hopital in Dalla, becaue, at 6:35 PM, that caket wa en route from Andrew Air Force Bae.

  • Denni David, Chief of the Day for the Medical chool (alo part of the NNMC) on the evening of the autopy, told the Aaination Record Review Board (ARRB) in 1997 that he upervied the removal of a gray hipping caket from a black heare at about 6:45 [4]. A group of ailor under hi command carried the hipping caket into the anteroom of the morgue. After thi event, David witneed the arrival of the navy ambulance -- carrying the ornamental caket and Mr. Kennedy -- at the front of the NNMC. He aw Mr. Kennedy exit the ambulance and enter the lobby.
  • David alo decribed the heare a a black Cadillac, which, he wa certain, arrived well before the gray navy ambulance. Hi recollection of the time of arrival of 6:45 PM i conitent with that of gt. Boyajian.

    In February 2009, the author aked Denni David what, if anything, he had noticed when he upervied the delivery of the hipping caket to the anteroom. He reponded that he "aw marine in the morgue hallway." The ten-man ecurity detail under Boyajian' command wa compoed of marine, whoe preence would be conpicuou to a navy man.

  • Edward Reed a technician at Betheda Naval Hopital, took a number of x-ray of the preident' body during the autopy. In hi 1997 depoition to the ARRB, he tated that he reported to the morgue after being paged over the PA ytem [5, p. 20]. In 1978, he told Mark Flanagan of the Houe elect Committee on Aaination (HCA) [6] that he arrived at the morgue at around 6:30 PM, where, according to hi ARRB tetimony, he found that the caket containing the preident' body had already been delivered and wa being guarded by five or ix marine corpmen [5, p.22]. Reed helped carry the caket into the autopy room, wa preent when it wa opened and aw that the body wa inide a "platic bag" [5, p. 24; 6]. Mr. Reed' account corroborate thoe of Boyajian and David of an early arrival of a caket at the Betheda morgue and, furthermore, provide proof that thi caket contained the preident' body.
  • Hopital corpman Floyd Riebe aited in taking photograph during the autopy on Preident Kennedy' body. He told the ARRB [7, p. 28] in 1997 that a gun-metal gray caket, brought into the autopy room, contained the preident' body, which wa inide a body bag [7, p. 30] and that Paul O'Connor (ee below) aited in removing the body from the caket.
  • Paul O'Connor wa a medical technician who aited at the autopy. In 1997 he told HCA taff member that a pink hipping caket contained the preident' body, which wa in a body bag [8]. Mr. O'Connor' obervation are conitent with thoe of Reed and Riebe.
  • Like Paul O'Connor, Jame Jenkin wa a medical technician who wa interviewed by HCA taff member in 1977 [9]. Mr. Jenkin wa not aked to decribe the caket containing the preident' body. However, in a phone converation with author David Lifton in 1979, he aid that the caket "wa not a really ornamental type thing...not omething you'd expect a preident to be in" [1, p. 609].
  • Gawler' Firt Call heet. Gawler' Funeral Director (Wahington, DC) upplied a Marellu 710 mahogany caket [10] a a replacement for the ornamental bronze caket, becaue the latter had been damaged in tranit from Dalla. The preident' body wa interred at Arlington Cemetery inide the Marellu caket. Gawler' Firt Call heet, dated November 22, 1963, tate [10]:
  • Body removed from metal hipping Caket at UNH at Betheda.

    No time i given for thi event; however, it i conitent with eyewitne account of delivery to the Betheda morgue of a hipping caket containing the preident' body.


    EYEWITNEE TO DELIVERY OF A CAKET AT 7:17 PM

    When the plain hipping caket containing the preident' body wa carried into the Betheda morgue at 6:35-6:45 PM, the motorcade bringing Mr. Kennedy wa en route from Andrew Air Force Bae. One of the vehicle in the motorcade wa a gray navy ambulance carrying the ornamental bronze caket that had been flown from Dalla; on arrival at Andrew AFB, it had been placed in the ambulance by an all-ervice honor guard, under the command of Lieutenant amuel Bird. The honor guard made the journey to Betheda by helicopter.

  • Jame ibert and Franci O'Neill, FBI agent, were in the third car of the motorcade a it traveled from Andrew AFB to Betheda. Their reponibilitie were to maintain contant vigil over the bronze ornamental caket, which they believed carried the preident' body, to attend the autopy and to collect bullet or fragment recovered from the body. Their dutie and activitie are decribed in their ubequent report [11] and tatement to Arlen pecter [12], to the HCA [13; 14] and to the ARRB [15; 16].
  • FBI Agent O'Neill told the ARRB that, upon hi (and Agent ibert') arrival at the front entrance of the hopital (at approximately 6:55 PM [17]), he oberved Mr. Kennedy, Bobby Kennedy and probably Dr. Burkley exit the gray navy ambulance, which contained the ornamental bronze caket, and enter the hopital along with ecret ervice Agent Roy Kellerman. After ome time, during which the navy ambulance had not moved, he and ibert approached Larry O'Brien (preident' aitant) and aked about the delay. O'Brien aid that A William Greer, who had driven the ambulance from Andrew AFB to Betheda, wa not ure how to find the morgue. ince O'Neill and ibert were familiar with the Betheda Hopital ground, they drove to the morgue entrance at the rear of the hopital, with A Greer following.

    Upon arriving at the loading dock outide the morgue, O'Neill noted A Kellerman coming out of a door to a corridor leading into the autopy room, at which point he (O'Neill) introduced himelf to Kellerman. Clearly, Kellerman had found hi way from the front entrance of the hopital to the morgue complex.

    Thi author etimate that ibert and O'Neill, along with Greer and the ambulance, arrived at the morgue entrance jut prior to 7:17 PM. ibert told the ARRB that he and O'Neill aited Greer and Kellerman in taking the ornamental bronze caket into the anteroom of the morgue at about 7:17 PM [15, p. 45; p. 50]. In their interview with pecter, both agent aid that "preparation for the autopy" occurred at approximately 7:17 PM [12, p. 2].


    EYEWITNEE TO DELIVERY OF A CAKET AT 8:00 PM

  • amuel Bird wa an infantry lieutenant in charge of a nine-man team (initially, two were added later) compoed of repreentative of the five armed ervice -- army, navy, air force, marine and coat guard -- called the "joint-ervice caket-bearer team" (generally referred to a the "honor guard"). In a report dated December 10, 1963, Lt. Bird decribed hi dutie, from 11/22/63 until 11/25/63 when the preident' body wa interred at Arlington Cemetery [18].
  • In the early evening of the day of the aaination, the honor guard off-loaded the ornamental bronze caket from Air Force One onto a gray navy ambulance. Mr. Kennedy and Bobby Kennedy, along with ecret ervice Agent Kellerman, Greer and Landi rode in the ambulance with the caket from Andrew AFB to the Betheda Hopital entrance.

    Bird' report tate that the honor guard carried the ornamental bronze caket into the Betheda morgue at 8:00 PM [18].


    OLVING THE CONUNDRUM

    Three arrival, two caket, one body. What wa going on?

    In thi author' opinion, the information provided above i proof beyond a reaonable doubt that Preident Kennedy' body arrived at the Betheda morgue at hortly after 6:30 PM in a hipping caket. The ornamental caket, in which the body had been placed in Dalla, arrived at Betheda Naval Hopital at 6:55 PM, and wa carried into the morgue twice. Initially thi occurred at approximately 7:17 PM with the caket carried by FBI pecial Agent Jame ibert and Franci O'Neill and ecret ervice agent into the anteroom, and it occurred again at 8:00 PM with the caket carried by the honor guard into the morgue.

    I believe that the FBI agent diembled in their November 26 report [11] when they implied that they maintained contant vigilance over the preident' body. Omiion of critical time point convey the impreion that their involvement with the ornamental caket wa continuou when, in fact, it wa not.

    Detailed time point are provided in the early part of their report [11]. For example, two etimate of the time of arrival of Air Force One from Dalla are quoted, wherea the actual time of arrival i omitted a are the time of departure for, and arrival at, Betheda:

    On arrival at the Medical Center, the ambulance topped in front of the main entrance, at which time Mr. JACQUELINE KENNEDY and ATTORNEY GENERAL ROBERT KENNEDY embarked from ambulance and entered the building. The ambulance wa thereafter driven around to the rear entrance where the Preident' body wa removed and taken into the autopy room. Bureau agent aited in the moving of the caket to the autopy room. A tight ecurity wa immediately placed around the autopy room by the Naval facility and the U.. ecret ervice.

    Their claim that they carried the caket into the autopy room i dubiou ince the preident' body had been on the table in the autopy room for approximately half an hour. In fact, ibert told the ARRB that he and O'Neill aited in taking the ornamental bronze caket into the anteroom of the morgue [15, p. 45]. Thi detail i revealing. If the FBI agent carried the caket into the autopy room, it i inconceivable that they would ever ay otherwie. They may have agreed to leave the caket in the anteroom becaue of the "tight ecurity...placed around the autopy room."

    If ibert and O'Neill were prevented from entering the autopy room at 7:17 pm, when were they permitted to enter? A reaonable etimate i 7:35 PM; however, ee [18a]. Dr. Hume told the Warren Commiion that the "body wa received at 7:35 PM" [19]. (It i noteworthy that the Warren Commiion failed to ee the conflict with that time and an 8:00 PM arrival of the body brought in by the honor guard.) When they re-entered, ibert and O'Neill may have een the bronze caket open in the anteroom and the body on the table, but did not ee the body removed from the bronze caket. Their report tate [11, p. 3]:

    The preident' body wa removed from the caket in which it had been tranported...

    Thi choice of word indicate that the agent made the aumption the body had been removed from the bronze caket, an event they did not witne. It i noteworthy that they had explicitly tated earlier in their report,

    Bureau agent aited in the moving of the caket to the autopy room.

    It i likely that if they had een the ornamental caket being opened and the body removed, they would have tated it explicitly in their November 26 report (however, ee [20]).

    hortly after their admiion to the autopy room, ibert and O'Neill were aked to leave becaue x-ray had to be taken [16, pp. 62-63]. Preumably, their removal from the autopy room wa neceary o that the formal delivery of the body by the honor guard could be executed at 8:00 PM.

    It appear that the preident' body wa replaced in the ornamental caket. Medical technician Jame E. Metzler told David Lifton [1, pp. 630-634] that the preident' body wa inide the ornamental bronze caket when it wa brought into the morgue at 8:00 PM:

    I went out to the door, ye...the honor guard wa there. They brought in the caket...by the time I got to the door I believe they were jut about coming in... The honor guard brought it in and they had to leave. And then I helped put him on the table... [The caket] wa dark brown, I believe it had handle on the ide of it. It would be omething that you'd ee at a viewing...

    When Metzler wa aked if the caket wa a ceremonial type, like one you would ee in a funeral home for a viewing, he replied, "Ye...exactly." He reiterated hi obervation of an honor guard by aying, "...thi wa the bunch that ued to take care of the funeral dutie for any preident...from all different branche."


    IMPLICATION

    Two entrie of the preident' body to the morgue raie the obviou quetion a to why the preident' body wa removed from the ornamental caket in which it had been placed at Parkland Hopital. A logical anwer i that the wound oberved at Parkland, indicative of frontal hot, had to be altered and revered to point to hot from the rear.

    Evidence to upport the thei that alteration were done are derived from the account of X-ray technician Edward Reed and photographer John tringer. In hi ARRB depoition, Reed indicated the firt inciion done on the preident wa in the forehead [5, pp. 57, 58]. The author believe thi wa done to excie the mall entrance wound in the forehead region that wa decribed by Joe O'Donnell [24] and Denni David [4]. In tringer' interview with HCA taff member Kelly and Purdy, he aid that "the doctor had to crack the kull to get the brain out..." [24b]. Cracking the kull i not the protocol ued in an autopy to remove the brain. Moreover, that procedure wa not decribed in the autopy report. The author believe it wa done for no other purpoe than to create more damage beyond what wa originally caued by the bullet which had produced a large exit wound located olely in the right rear of the preident' head, the original wound found by the doctor at Parkland hopital The original head wound wa caued by a bullet hot from the front. By cruhing the kull and extending damage to the top of the preident' head, fale evidence wa created to lend upport that the fatal head hot had originated from the rear.

    There i no need here to provide all of the contrating evidence given by the Parkland Hopital doctor veru what eventually wa written in the final autopy report. Thi ubject ha been dicued in other text. uffice to ay that the contemporaneou report by the Parkland Hopital doctor, which were ignored by the Warren Commiion and by the HCA, clearly indicated that the throat wound wa one of entry and the head wound wa one of exit. The three-quarter-of-an-inch tracheotomy made at Parkland Hopital acro the entry wound in the throat ubequently became a much larger gah, not only in length but in width; the autopy report decribed it a "a wound with widely gaping irregular edge" with a length of 6.5 cm (i.e. a little over 2.5 inche) [21]. And the head wound that wa located principally in the occipital region at Parkland Hopital extended well into the parietal region at Betheda.

    The account of aundra K. pencer to the ARRB in December 1996 and June 1997 provide additional proof that the preident' wound were altered. Petty Officer pencer, tationed at the Naval Photographic Center at Anacotia, wa in charge of the "White Houe" laboratory. In a telephone interview he aid the following [22]:

  • On November 23, 1963, he received three or four duplex film holder (ix or eight hot) of color negative from a federal agent named Fox, which he undertood to be autopy photograph. he developed the negative, made print and gave all material back to Fox.
  • The preident' body wa "very clean" unlike other autopy photograph he had een.
  • There wa a circular wound at the bae of the front of the preident' neck, about the ize of a peron' thumb.
  • There wa a wound in the back of the preident' head, at about the center, 3 or 4 inche above the hairline. It wa about 2 to 2.5 inche wide, which he decribed a a "blown out chunk."
  • he aw no damage to the ide of the preident' head.
  • he could not tell whether or not there wa damage to the top of the head becaue the negative he proceed did not how it.
  • In a depoition [23], pencer repeated ome of thee obervation. he noted that although he wa in charge of the White Houe lab, he worked under Chief Robert Knuden who acted a her upervior and liaion with the White Houe. Her obervation included:

  • A photograph howed "a brain laid beide the body...But it didn't appear that the kull had been cut, peeled back and the brain removed..." A to whoe brain it wa, he could not ay.
  • The throat wound appeared a "about the ize of like your thumb preed in."
  • After being hown the extant "official" photograph of the autopy by the ARRB' Jeremy Gunn, pencer noted the following:

  • None of the photograph wa developed by her. In addition, the print paper ued for the photograph he wa hown wa not the ame type of paper he ued in November 1963 when he proceed the color negative received from Agent Fox.
  • None of the photograph he developed in November 1963 wa in the inventory of photograph he wa hown by Gunn during her depoition.
  • In the photograph that he developed, the brain wa le damaged than that depicted in the photograph hown to her during her depoition.
  • The importance of what aundra pencer told the ARRB cannot be overtated. Her decription of the wound in the throat and head were a decribed by the Parkland Hopital doctor. Therefore, the photograph currently in the official inventory at the National Archive are untruthful repreentation of the wound. One example of thi i the photograph which how the back of the preident' head intact, concealing the real wound which the Parkland Hopital doctor found.

    U Information Agency photographer Joe O'Donnell' phone interview with the ARRB in January/February 1997 [24] confirm the obervation of aundra pencer. O'Donnell, a friend of Robert Knuden, tated that, at ome time after the aaination, he wa hown two et of photograph by Knuden. The firt et included a photograph of a hole in the back of the preident' head (about the ize of a grapefruit), and a round hole in the forehead, jut above the right eye, about three-eighth of an inch in diameter. In the econd et, the hole in the rear of the head wa gone; the hair, apparently wet, wa neatly combed over the region of the hole. The wound over the right eye alo wa gone.

    Clearly, at ome point there exited photograph that documented the wound that the preident incurred in Dealey Plaza, a oberved and reported on by the Parkland Hopital doctor. Baed on the obervation of eyewitnee at Betheda, the wound were enlarged after the preident' body left Parkland Hopital. The caket/body chicanery at Betheda Naval Hopital, between 6:30 and 8:00 PM on the evening of the aaination wa a neceary component of the body-alteration proce. In hi recently publihed book, On the Trail of the JFK Aain [25], Dick Ruell include an important interview with Doug Horne. Horne decribe having an epiphany in 2006 while writing a book on hi work for the ARRB:

    The evidence for three eparate caket entrie into the morgue...i overwhelming and unimpeachable, and the honet reearcher cannot imply be in denial about thee event if ()he take a cientific, empirical approach to the evidence

    [W]hat (David) Lifton had peculatively called the pre-autopy autopy began about an hour and a half before the official one.

    I am abolutely convinced that Hume and Bowell were engaged in a deception that centered around getting the body early and performing certain manipulation on it.

    Mr. Horne' elf-publihed book i expected to be available in late 2009. It could be the big breakthrough in the tudy of the JFK aaination.


    Acknowledgment The author thank Allan Eagleham for comment and uggetion on the manucript and for providing web-page pace. The author alo credit Doug Horne for hi contribution which helped in etablihing a logical timeline for FBI Agent ibert and O'Neill.


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    ource & Note
    [1] Lifton, David . (1988) Bet Evidence: Diguie and Deception in the aaination of John F. Kennedy. New York: Carroll & Graf.
    [2] "Morgue" i often ued to ignify the room in which the autopy on Preident Kennedy' body wa conducted. In thi article, "morgue" will refer to the uite of room compriing an anteroom (or cooler room), autopy room, changing room and torage room (ee Paul O'Connor' ketch here); where poible, ditinction i made between the anteroom and autopy room, otherwie the term "morgue" i ued.
    [3] ARRB MD 236 - Call Report of eptember 5, 1997 Telephone Interview of Roger Boyajian (Former NCOIC of Marine ecurity Detail at Autopy of Preident Kennedy), With Hi Contemporaneou After-Action Report Attached. http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/mater_med_et/md236/html/md236_0005a.htm.
    [4] ARRB MD 177 - Call Report ummarizing 2/14/97 Telephonic Interview of Denni David. http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/mater_med_et/md177/html/md177_0001a.htm.
    [5] Depoition of Edward F. Reed to the ARRB. http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/medical_tetimony/Reed_10-21-97/html/Reed_0001a.htm.
    [6] ARRB MD 194 - HCA ummary of 4/21/78 Telephonic Interview of Edward F. Reed. http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/mater_med_et/md194/html/md194_0001a.htm.
    [7] Depoition of Floyd Albert Riebe to the ARRB. http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/medical_tetimony/Riebe_5-7-97/html/Riebe_0001a.htm.
    [8] ARRB MD 64 - O'Connor-Purdy HCA Interview (8/29/77). http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/mater_med_et/md64/html/Image0.htm.
    [9] ARRB MD 65 - Jenkin-Purdy HCA Interview (8/29/77). http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/mater_med_et/md65/html/md65_0001a.htm.
    [10] MD 129 - Gawler' Funeral Home "Firt Call heet." http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/mater_med_et/md129/html/md129_0001a.htm.
    [11] ARRB MD 44 - ibert and O'Neill Report on the Autopy (11/26/63)--"Gemberling Verion." http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/mater_med_et/md44/html/Image0.htm.
    [12] ARRB MD 153 - FBI Internal Memorandum To: Mr. Belmont From: A. Roen (dated 3/12/64) ummarizing, in Q and A Format, An Interview that ame Date of BUAGENT ibert and O'Neill by Commiion taff Member Arlen pecter. http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/mater_med_et/md153/html/md153_0001a.htm.
    [13] ARRB MD 46 - ibert Affidavit for HCA--Retyped by ibert With Comment Added (10/24/78). http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/mater_med_et/md46/html/Image0.htm.
    [14] ARRB MD 47 - O'Neill Affidavit for HCA--Retyped by O'Neill with Correction and Minor Change Implemented (11/8/78). http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/mater_med_et/md47/html/Image0.htm.
    [15] Depoition of Jame W. ibert to the ARRB. http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/medical_tetimony/ibert_9-11-97/html/ibert_01a.htm.
    [16] Depoition of Franci X. O'Neill, Jr., to the ARRB. http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/medical_tetimony/Oneill_9-12-97/html/ONeill_0001a.htm.
    [17] Clint Hill, Warren Commiion Hearing Volume 18, p. 744.
    [18] ARRB MD 163 - Cover heet Titled: "Joint Caket Bearer Team" (unigned and undated) containing time line of event, with report titled "After Action Report, Joint Caket Team--tate Funeral, Preident John Fitzgerald Kennedy," dated 10 December 1963, and igned by 1t Lt. amuel L. Bird, OIC--Joint ervice Caket Team, attached. http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/mater_med_et/md163/html/md163_0001a.htm.
    [18a] (Note added May 23, 2011) An article publihed May 17, 2011, FBI Agent Jame W. ibert and Franci X. O´┐ŻNeill: Analyi of their Activitie at the Betheda Morgue on November 22, 1963, http://manucriptervice.com/JW-FXO/, provide information to ugget that ibert and O'Neill firt entered the autopy room hortly after 8:00 PM.
    [19] Jame Hume, Warren Commiion Hearing Volume 2, p. 349.
    [20] In their ARRB depoition, Mr. ibert and Mr. O'Neill aid that they witneed the opening of the ornamental caket and removal of the body [14, pp. 45-46; 15, p. 69].
    [21] Warren Commiion Exhibit 387.
    [22] ARRB, MD 233 - ARRB Call Report of December 13,1996, Telephone Interview of aundra pencer (Formerly tationed at NPC. http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/mater_med_et/md233/html/md233_0001a.htm.
    [23] Depotion of aundra pender to the ARRB. http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/medical_tetimony/pencer_6-5-97/html/pencer_0001a.htm.
    [24] ARRB, MD 231 - ARRB Call Report of Telephone Interview of Mr. Joe O'Donnell (Former UIA Photographer Who aw Robert L. Knuden' JFK Autopy Photograph) of l/29/97 and 2/28/97. http://www.hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/mater_med_et/md231/html/md231_0001a.htm
    [24b] HCA Interview by Purdy with Harper (8/8/77), Cairn (8/9/77), Burkley (n.d.), Hume (8/10/77), tringer (8/12/77 and 8/15/77), document dated 8/17/77. http://hitory-matter.com/archive/jfk/arrb/mater_med_et/md19/html/Image08.htm
    [25] Ruell, D. (2008) On the Trail of the JFK Aain. New York: kyhore Publihing.

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