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April 13, 2010

Added May 26, 2010: endnote [21b].

Added September 23, 2010: endnote [21a].


JFK 11/22/63:
Where Was the Throat Wound Altered?

James V. Rinnovatore

The conclusion of the Warren Commission Report [1, p. 117] includes the statement, "Since the preponderance of the evidence indicated that three shots were fired, the Commission concluded that one shot probably missed the presidential limousine and its occupants..."

The conclusion that three shots were fired was based solely on the discovery of three cartridge cases in the "sniper's nest" at the southeast corner of the sixth floor Texas School Book Depository. The conclusion that one shot "probably" missed was based on the fact that James Tague, a bystander on Main Street in Dealey Plaza, more than 200 feet from the president's limousine, was struck on the cheek from a bullet fragment that ricocheted from curbing about eight feet in front of him.

The missed shot was problematical because the Commission then had to explain how only two bullets caused all the wounds, not only to the president, but also to Governor John Connally. The problem was solved by the formulation of the single-bullet theory (SBT).

The SBT is the sine qua non of the Commission's conclusion that a lone assassin murdered President Kennedy. The Commission concluded that, of the three shots fired "in a time period ranging from approximately 4.8 to in excess of 7 seconds" [1, p. 117], one hit the president's head; one missed; and one entered his back, exited at the throat, struck Governor Connally in the back, exited his chest, entered and exited his right wrist and subsequently lodged in his left thigh. The governor's fifth rib was shattered in the process. [1, pp. 92-93]

The throat wound is the critical element in the formulation of the SBT. The Commission concluded that it was an exit wound. But was it?

Two of the first doctors to arrive at trauma room one at Parkland Memorial Hospital, Drs. Charles Carrico and Malcolm Perry, described the throat wound as having the characteristics of an entry wound: small and circular. Dr. Carrico said it was "probably a 4- to 7-mm wound...rather round...no jagged edges..." [2]. Dr. Perry described it as about "5 mm" and "roughly spherical to oval in shape, not a punched out wound..." [3].

Dr. Perry made an incision across the bullet wound, just large enough to accommodate a breathing tube. During a phone conversation in 1966 with author David Lifton, Perry said the incision was "two to three centimeters" wide [4, p. 272]. Drs. Paul Peters and Robert McClelland, also present in trauma room one, said the incision was "sharp" and "smooth," respectively [4, p. 275]. After the breathing tube was removed, the incision closed, revealing the original wound in the throat, as described by Drs. Charles Crenshaw and Malcolm Perry. Dr. Crenshaw recalled, "When the body left Parkland there was no gaping, bloody defect in the front of the throat, just a small bullet hole in the thin line of Perry's incision" [5, p. 54] Dr. Perry described the bullet wound in the throat as "inviolate" [6, pp. 100-101].

In stark contrast, when the president's body was observed at the Bethesda Naval Hospital at 8:00 pm -- the start of the official autopsy -- the incision/wound in the throat was elongated and widened. The autopsy report [1, p. 540] described it as "a 6.5 cm long transverse wound with widely gaping, irregular edges." In his testimony to the Warren Commission, chief pathologist Dr. James Humes said that it was "7 or 8 cm" in the transverse direction [7] (Figure 1).

Figure 1. The "stare of death" photograph.

Clearly, the throat wound had been altered during transit of the president's body from Parkland Hospital at about 2:00 pm to the Bethesda morgue at 8:00 pm. But where and when was it altered?

In his recently published magnum opus, Douglas Horne proposed that the throat wound/incision was tampered with on Air Force One at Love Field, Dallas, just prior to takeoff. [6, p. 997]. Mr. Horne suggested that Secret Service Agent Roy Kellerman was responsible for (1) transfer of the president's body from the ornamental bronze casket (in which it had been placed at Parkland Hospital) to a plain shipping casket (in which it arrived at Bethesda) [6, chapter 13; see also 8] and (2) tampering with the throat wound [6, p. 997]

In contrast to Horne's view that the original throat wound was altered on Air Force One, I believe that the throat wound was altered at the Bethesda morgue at the same time the president's head wounds were altered [6, pp. 1168-1171]. Eyewitness accounts are presented to support this thesis.

I will discuss the testimony of four eyewitnesses who were inside the morgue when the president's body arrived in a plain, metal shipping casket at the 6:35/6:45 pm time frame [8]. What needs to be determined is not only what these eyewitnesses observed regarding the throat wound, but at what point of the autopsy they made their observations.

Floyd Riebe
Floyd Riebe assisted in the taking of photographs during the autopsy on President Kennedy's body. When contacted by David Lifton in November 1979, he stated that he was in the morgue early and witnessed the arrival of the president's body inside a rubberized bag which was inside a shipping casket. Unfortunately, Lifton did not ask Riebe to describe the president's throat wound [4, pp. 636-639]. In his deposition to the Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB) [9], Riebe affirmed his account to David Lifton that the president's body arrived in a "rubberized type body bag" [9, p. 30]. He described a "very plain, inexpensive type casket" [9, p. 29]. Shortly after the president's body was placed on the table, as he was starting to take photographs, he was asked to leave the autopsy room [9, p. 32]. Riebe was not asked in his ARRB deposition how long he was absent from the morgue. Upon his return, while Dr. Pierre Finck was present [9, p. 46], he resumed photographing and, at this point, observed the president's wounds. (Note: Dr. Finck arrived at the Bethesda morgue at about 8:30 pm [10, p. 70]). Riebe noted "a flap of bone over on the side above the temporal area" [9, p. 45] and described the throat wound as "[k]ind of overexaggerated...bigger than I have seen before" [9, p. 46].

Mr. Riebe's description of head damage in the temporal region was not observed at Parkland Hospital. Neither was the throat wound as large at Parkland Hospital. And since his observations were made after he returned to the morgue, at about 8:30 pm in Dr. Finck's presence, I believe that the head and throat wounds were altered while he was absent from the morgue.

Edward Reed
Edward Reed, a technician at the Bethesda Naval Hospital, assisted in taking x-rays of the president's body. During a phone interview with Mark Flanagan for the House Select Committee on Assassinations, Reed said that he was in the morgue at about 6:30 pm [11, p. 1]. He described the throat wound as "about two inches in diameter" [11, p. 2]. Later, he told David Lifton that "it wasn't like...a normal tracheotomy. It was a lot larger." [4, p. 619].

As explained by Doug Horne [6, chapter 13], Mr. Reed saw Dr. Humes use a saw to cut the president's forehead well before the official autopsy began, soon after which Reed was asked to leave the autopsy room.

In his deposition to the ARRB, Reed said he was asked to leave the morgue right after he assisted in removing the body from the casket [12, p. 32 ]. When asked to describe the president's wounds, he said that he did not see any wound in the back of the head. He said the scalp in that region was intact and described the major damage to the head as located in the "temporal parietal region, right side." He estimated that the wound in this location was big enough for him to insert four fingers [12, p. 27 ] and described the throat as having "a large gaping wound [a]pproximately seven centimeters...in length...[a]nd about two centimeters in width" [12, p. 29].

His descriptions of the head wound were much different from what was seen at Parkland. Hence, it had been altered -- just as for Riebe -- while he was absent from the autopsy room. Since his description of the throat wound (which he observed at the same time as the head wound) was made after he returned to the morgue, I believe that this wound was also altered during his absence from the morgue.

Jerrol Custer
Jerrol Custer, a technician at the Bethesda Naval Hospital, supervised the taking of x-rays of the president's body. In a videotaped interview with David Lifton [13], he said that he observed the president's body brought into the morgue, nude, accompanied by a body bag. He described a "plain shipping casket" brought in by a "color honor guard." After the president was taken from the casket, he and Ed Reed were asked to leave the morgue. Custer said that they returned two hours later [13], whereas Reed estimated 15 minutes in his ARRB deposition. [12, p. 32]. When David Lifton showed Custer the "stare of death" autopsy photograph (Figure 1) during a videotaped interview, Custer said he recalled seeing a small hole, resembling an entrance wound [13], unlike the large gash in this photograph.

In his deposition to the ARRB, Mr. Custer indicated he had already taken a set of x-rays before observing the "presidential party" enter the Bethesda Hospital [14, pp. 33, 34]. According to SSA Clint Hill, Mrs. Kennedy and her entourage arrived at the Bethesda Hospital at about 7:00 pm [15].

When asked by the ARRB's Jeremy Gunn to describe the appearance of the president's body, Custer said there was a plastic bag wrapped around his head, with sheets around the bag, and he "was still dressed in a suit" [14, pp. 80-81]. At this point, prior to taking any x-rays, he was asked to leave the morgue and he said he returned about one hour later [14, p. 83]. He described the throat wound as a "typical bullet hole...a little bit bigger than my little finger...(in) diameter." After he was asked if he had observed a long incision or cut on the throat, Custer replied, "Not at that time, I didn't" [14, p. 90].

After he had described the throat wound, he referred to schematics of the skull, saying that there was damage in the parietal temporal region with a "king-size hole" in the occipital region, into which two hands together would fit [14, pp. 92-94]. Also, he indicated that a section of skull between the temporal bone and parietal bone was "flapped out...as if they had sawed it" [14, p. 96].

Mr. Custer's description of the throat wound indicated that at some point it was a small wound, similar to that observed at Parkland. But, later, it must have appeared to be much different. His statement, "Not at that time, I didn't," suggests that he observed different wounds at different times. I believe that the small wound corresponds to when the president's body arrived in the shipping casket and that alterations were done on this wound as well as on the head wound, while he (as well as Reed and Riebe) were absent. Thus, after the re-entry of the president's body into the morgue at 8:00 pm, via the bronze casket [8], everyone observed a grossly altered trach incision.

In an interview with author William Law [16, p. 115], Custer described the throat wound as a "big gaping hole." Unfortunately, Law did not ask at what stage of the autopsy Custer made that observation. There is no doubt that Custer did, in fact, see a grossly altered throat wound as is depicted in Figure 1.

Mr. Custer's timeline of when he was in the morgue and made the observations of the president's throat wound can be deduced from the following. Dr. Finck told the HSCA Medical Panel that he arrived at the morgue after the autopsy had begun, at about 8:30 pm [10, p. 70]. In a letter to Gen. J.M. Blumberg, Director of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Finck stated that he received a call from Dr. Humes at 2000 hours (8:00 pm) and arrived at the morgue at 8:30 pm, at which time head and chest x-rays had been taken. [17, p. 1]. In a summary report on the autopsy, dated 25 January 1965, Dr. Finck wrote that he arrived at the morgue at about 2030 hours (8:30 pm) at which time "[t]he radiologist had studied the radiographs of the head..." [18]. Custer stated that five x-rays of the skull were the first to be taken. [14, pp. 86-88].

If x-rays had been processed and examined by 8:30 pm, when were they taken? Shortly after the 6:35 pm arrival of the shipping casket or after the 8:00 pm arrival of the bronze casket? [See 8 regarding casket arrival.] Custer estimated that about 30 minutes were required to develop five x-rays and return to the morgue [14, p. 104]. In view of the fact that some time was required for preliminary examinations of the body before x-rays were taken, it was not possible that x-rays were initiated shortly after the body arrived at 8:00 pm in order for Dr. Finck to view them at 8:30 pm. Moreover, when Dr. Humes called Dr. Finck at 8:00 pm, it is likely the pathologists had already examined the skull x-rays. Thus, the first set of x-rays must have been taken before 8:00 pm, likely at about 7:00 pm, approximately the time at which Custer observed Mrs. Kennedy entering Bethesda Hospital while he and Reed were returning to the morgue with the first set of unexposed x-ray film in hand. If Reed's account is more accurate than Custer's regarding how long he and Custer were out of the morgue before they took the first set of x-rays, i.e. 15 minutes, then Custer was in the morgue early as he claimed, at the 6:35/6:45pm timeframe. This also confirms his account to David Lifton of when he observed a shipping casket and a body bag.

Tom Robinson
Tom Robinson, an embalmer for Gawler's Funeral Home, was in the gallery during the autopsy. In a tape-recorded interview with HSCA staff members Andy Purdy and Jim Conzelman [19, p. 2] Robinson described the throat wound as a "nasty tracheotomy." However, this description corresponds to an observation he made while he was involved in the reconstruction of the president's body after the autopsy. In his ARRB interview [20, p. 3] he described the throat wound as an "exit wound," but did not indicate when he made that observation.

These accounts are consistent with alteration of the throat wound at Bethesda soon after arrival in a shipping casket at 6:35/6:45 pm [8] when a number of key eyewitnesses were asked to leave the morgue. Other than the circumstantial evidence of Kellerman's bloody shirt [6, p. 997], there is nothing to support the thesis that the throat wound was tampered with on Air Force One. But setting that aside for the moment, there is a question of why there would have been a need to devise a plan to alter the president's wounds at two different times and locations.

The transfer of the president's body from the bronze casket to a body bag was a dangerous act in itself. (This is when Kellerman could have gotten blood on his shirt.) Carrying this one big step further by performing crude surgery on the throat wound on Air Force One [as suggested in 6, p. 997] is difficult to conceive, especially by Secret Service Agent Kellerman, who was clearly not trained to remove (a) bullet(s) or fragment(s). In order to be as inconspicuous as possible, it would be more logical for the conspirators to make the alterations on (i.e. extract evidence from) the head and throat wounds at the same location such as at a morgue which would not raise suspicion; such activity would be interpreted as part of the normal autopsy.

Three other accounts suggest that the throat wound was altered after the president's body arrived at Bethesda: those of Dennis David, Joe O'Donnell and Saundra Spencer.

Dennis David
Chief of the Day for the Naval Medical School, which, like the Naval Hospital, was part of the National Navy Medical Center, Dennis David supervised the removal of a gray shipping casket from a black Cadillac hearse at about 6:45 pm [8].

In a telephone interview in 1997 with Doug Horne, who was working at the ARRB at that time [21], Mr. David said William Pitzer showed him a 16-mm black and white movie, 35-mm color slides, and 3x5-inch black and white prints of the president's wounds. Mr. Horne wrote that Mr. David observed a gaping wound in the right rear of the president's head; a small round wound in the right temporal area; the top of the president's head intact; and a gaping wound in the throat. The rear head wound resembled that observed at Parkland Hospital.

In an interview with William Law [16, p. 17], David said that he was not sure that he had seen the large throat wound at the time he was viewing the film and photographs shown to him by Lt. Pitzer.

In a conversation on body alteration, Allan Eaglesham told me that he and Dennis David spent an evening together about ten years ago during which Eaglesham showed David copies of the autopsy photographs and asked him specifically about the throat wound; i.e. what he had seen in the Pitzer movie. Eaglesham was surprised when David said that he had no recollection of the grossly exaggerated throat wound, as depicted in the "stare of death" photograph (Figure 1). Therefore, Mr. David's accounts to Eaglesham and Law regarding his observations of the throat wound in the Pitzer film and photographs were at odds with what was written in Doug Horne's summary of their unrecorded telephone conversation [21].

In a telephone conversation on March 18, 2010, I asked Mr. David to clarify the apparent differences in his recollection of the throat wound. He responded as follows:

  • During his conversation with Doug Horne [21], there was a misunderstanding. Prior to discussing the throat wound, he made the comment that -- referring to autopsy photographs that are published in Best Evidence [4] -- he did not see the "flap" in the right side of the president's head in any of the photos or the film that Pitzer had shown him.
  • His comment of a "sloppy" tracheotomy was also in reference to the autopsy photographs in Best Evidence and not to the Pitzer photographs or film.
  • Doug Horne must have assumed that his reference to a "sloppy" tracheotomy was in reference to the Pitzer photographs or film.
  • When I asked him how sure he was about not telling Horne that he had seen the "throat gash" in Pitzer's photographs and film, he replied, "I'm positive" (however, see [21a]).

    Joe O'Donnell [21b]
    In his interview with the ARRB [22], Mr. O'Donnell, a photographer with the US Information Agency in 1963, claimed that White House photographer Robert Knudsen showed him two sets of 5x7-inch black and white photographs depicting the president's wounds. One set showed a gaping hole in the right rear of the head plus a small wound above the right eye, whereas, in the other set of photographs, the rear head wound and the small wound on the right forehead were gone [22, pp. 2, 5]. O'Donnell made no comments on the throat wound or the top of the head for either of the two sets of photos. His omission of descriptions of the throat gash and of a defect in the top of the head suggests that neither was present at the time the photographs he observed were taken.

    O'Donnell's description of the small wound above the right eye is consistent with that described by Dennis David, based on his observations of the film and photographs shown to him by William Pitzer.

    Saundra Spencer
    Petty Officer First Class Saundra Spencer worked at the Photographic Center at Anacostia, MD. In her ARRB interview [23], Spencer claimed that, a day or two after the autopsy, she developed color negatives depicting the president's wounds. She made the following observations:

  • One print showed a wound in the back of the head, 2 to 2.5 inches in diameter.
  • The throat wound appeared like "your thumb pressed in"; "like a finger, half-inch"; "it appeared just indented...clean...pristine..."
  • When shown an autopsy photograph depicting a "gaping gash type" wound at the throat (e.g. Figure 1), she said she did not see that in any of the negatives she developed. She made no comment about the top of the head because it wasn't visible in the negatives she developed.

    Ms. Spencer's observations of the rear head wound and the throat wound conform to the observations at Parkland Hospital. That she failed to notice a throat wound is explainable in terms of the small trach incision made at Parkland Hospital having closed after removal of the breathing tube (per the accounts of Crenshaw and Perry [5, p. 54; 6, pp. 100-101]).

    I believe that the negatives she developed were taken at Bethesda before any alterations were made. Moreover, I believe that the photographs seen by Dennis David, Joe O'Donnell and Saundra Spencier were taken by William Pitzer in the Bethesda autopsy room. In his interview with William Law, Jerrol Custer said that William Pitzer was "taking movies" [16, p. 116] and in his ARRB deposition, he identified the person taking movies as the "gentleman that had committed suicide" [14, p. 40]. It is also possible that Lt. Pitzer made photographs from frames of the movie.

    One could postulate that the negatives Spencer developed were taken after reconstruction of the president's body. Her observations of negatives depicting a very clean body and a brain laid next to the president's head appeared to Doug Horne to be consistent with a time after reconstruction [based on a conversation with this author, December 2009]. It should be noted, however, that the president's body was washed at Parkland Hospital and both his head and his body were wrapped with sheets prior to being placed inside the bronze casket. Even though it is likely that some blood seeped from the president’s head during travel from Parkland Hospital to the time of the arrival of his body at 6:35/6:45 pm, this blood could easily have been cleaned up at that time for photographs to be taken. There is no obvious explanation for why a brain (which clearly was not the president's) should have been placed next to the president's head and a photograph taken at either 6:35/6:45 pm or after reconstruction. Most of the president's brain was observed to be missing by autopsy technician Paul O'Connor [24, p. 2].

    I discount the possibility that the negatives Spencer developed correspond to after reconstruction because the gross wound at the throat was sutured and wax was put over the suture to seal it at that time by the morticians. I do not believe she would have missed seeing that restoration. Her descriptions of the throat wound are clear: it resembled the post-tracheotomy wound observed by the doctors at Parkland Hospital.

    The eyewitness reports indicate that the trach incision in the president's throat made at Parkland Hospital was enlarged after arrival at Bethesda Naval Hospital at the same time the head wounds were altered. Dennis David's recollections regarding the throat wound (as provided to Allan Eaglesham, to William Law and to me) suggest that he, Joe O'Donnell, and Saundra Spencer saw the same photographs of the president's wounds as they existed before alteration.

    Acknowledgments The author thanks Allan Eaglesham for comments and suggestions on the manuscript and for raising the possibility of this thesis.
    Thanks also are extended for providing web-page space.

    [1] Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy (1964) Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.
    [2] 6WCH 3 (Hearings before the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, volume six, page 3) (1964). Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.
    [3] 6WCH 9.
    [4] Lifton, D.S. (1980) Best Evidence: Disguise and Deception in the Assassination of John F, Kennedy. New York: MacMillan.
    [5] Assassination Science (Fetzer, J.H. Ed.) (2003). Chicago: Catfeet Press.
    [6] Horne, D.P. (2009) Inside the Assassination Records Review Board. Self-published; available from Amazon.com.
    [7] 2WCH 361.
    [8] Rinnovatore, J.V. (2009) JFK, 11/22/63: Body/Casket Chicanery at the Bethesda Morgue. https://manuscriptservice.com/BNH-chicanery.
    [9] Deposition of Floyd Albert Riebe to the Assassination Records Review Board. http://www.history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/medical_testimony/Riebe_5-7-97/html/Riebe_0001a.htm.
    [10] ARRB MD 30 - Testimony of Dr. Pierre Finck to the HSCA Medical Panel. http://www.history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/md30/html/Image00.htm.
    [11] ARRB MD194 - HSCA Summary of 4/21/78 Telephone Interview of Edward F. Reed. http://www.history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/md194/html/md194_0001a.htm.
    [12] Deposition of Edward F. Reed to the ARRB. http://www.history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/medical_testimony/Reed_10-21-97/html/Reed_0001a.htm.
    [13] Videotape of an interview of Jerrol Custer by David Lifton on 7/14/89; copy obtained from David Lifton.
    [14] Deposition of Jerrol Custer to the ARRB. http://www.history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/medical_testimony/Custer_10-28-97/html/Custer_0001a.htm.
    [15] 18WCH 744.
    [16] Law, W.M. (2005) In The Eye of History: Disclosures in the JFK Assassination Medical Evidence. Southlake, Texas: JFK Lancer Productions & Publications, Inc.
    [17] The Blumberg Letter (1965). http://www.paulseaton.com/jfk/humes-notes/blumberg.htm.
    [18] ARRB MD 28 - Reports from Lt. Col. Finck to Gen. Blumberg (1/25/65 and 2/1/65) http://www.history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/md28/html/Image00.htm.
    [19] ARRB MD 63 - Tape recorded interview of Thomas Evan Robinson. http://www.history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/md63/html/Image00.htm.
    [20] Horne, D.H. (1996) Meeting Report for an interview of Thomas Evan Robinson by the ARRB, obtained from the National Archives, available here. The drawings referred to are available at http://www.history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/md88/html/md88_0001a.htm.
    [21] ARRB MD 177 ARRB Call Report Summarizing 2/14/97 Telephonic Interview of Dennis David. http://www.history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/md177/html/md177_0001a.htm.
    [21a] Towards the end of the telephone conversation between Doug Horne and Dennis David [21], the latter made reference to a videotaped hypnosis session. On September 3 last, I had the opportunity to view that videotape, in which Mr. David -- under hypnosis in 1994 -- recounts his recollections of 11/22/63 and of his encounter with William Pitzer a few days later. He describes a "sloppy tracheotomy" in photographic materials shown to him by Lt. Pitzer, contrary to what he told me during our March 18, 2010, telephone conversation. On September 7, I telephoned seeking clarification. He said that he cannot explain why he made that statement while under hypnosis other than that he might have been recalling the "stare of death" autopsy photograph which David Lifton had shown him during an interview in late 1979. Despite what he said under hypnosis, Mr. David told me that he is certain that Pitzer showed him a photograph that did not depict the large incision in the throat. He added that he felt that there was no need to change his mind now regarding what he told me on March 18, i.e. that his comment of a "sloppy tracheotomy" made to Doug Horne was referring to the "stare of death" photograph contained in Best Evidence, and not to something Pitzer had shown him. Again: Dennis David is certain that he saw in William Pitzer's possession a photograph that did not depict the large incision in the throat.
    [21b] It has been suggested to the author that Joe O'Donnell's statements to the ARRB should be discounted in view of onset of dementia during the 1990s. On May 20, 2010, the author received an e-mail from Doug Horne describing two telephone conversations that he and Jeremy Gunn (ARRB) had with O'Donnell in 1997 [see 22]. In his e-mail, Horne said that he and Gunn believed what O'Donnell was saying: "We knew that O'Donnell's memory seemed faulty in other areas (who was president in the late 1950s; what he supposedly told Jackie about the burial site, etc.), but when it came to his recollections about what Knudsen showed him, he told us the same identical story on two occasions, and it seemed quite credible to both Jeremy and me."
    [22] ARRB MD 231 - Call Report of Telephonic Interview of Joe O'Donnell: http://www.history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/md231/html/md231_0001a.htm.
    [23] Deposition of Saundra Kay Spencer June 5. 1997. http://www.history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/medical_testimony/Spencer_6-5-97/html/Spencer_0001a.htm.
    [24] ARRB MD 64 - O'Connor-Purdy HSCA Interview (8/29/77). http://www.history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/md64/html/Image0.htm.


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